This retirement savings vehicle gets its name from Section 457 of the tax code. It is a type of non-qualified deferred compensation. The employee defers money into the 457 account on a pre-tax basis. Any growth in the account doesn’t get taxed until it is ultimately withdrawn years down the road, in retirement. Withdrawals are taxed then at ordinary income tax rates.
Where do you find a 457 deferred compensation plan? At government entities, and less commonly, non-church controlled tax-exempt organizations. Consequently, you won’t find a 457 plan at a for-profit corporation.
If your employer sponsors a 457 plan, how much can you put in? Same limits as with 401ks and 403bs: up to 100% of compensation, capped at $19,500 in 2020.
If you have two jobs, one with your city, and another with a private company, you can contribute to both retirement plans. You have two separate and unrelated limits: You can defer $19,500 to both. On the other hand, if you worked for two different for-profit employers, you’d have only one $19,500 annual contribution limit to use between the two employers' plans. This is a huge advantage to participating in a 457.
An employee over age 50 can actually defer more than the $19,500 limit. There are two different so-called catch-up provisions:
Largely for public employees. The State of Florida sponsors a 457 deferred compensation plan, as do Miami-Dade County and the City of Miami. Investors choose from a universe of mutual fund sub-accounts, so the participant is exposed to market risk as in any defined contribution plan.
There are different rules for governmental and non-governmental 457s. The governmental 457 can simply be rolled into a Traditional IRA. At age 72 the required minimum distribution rules apply. The non-governmental 457 must be distributed, however. No other options. That distribution could run the taxpayer up into the highest brackets in that year, and wipe out 40% of the savings!
A huge difference between 457 distributions and qualified plan and IRA distributions occurs before age 59 ½.
There is no 10% penalty! If you are, say, 55 and want to retire early and live off of monthly distributions from your IRA. Bad plan! Every withdrawal will be subject not only to ordinary income tax, but also to a 10% penalty on the amount withdrawn. This penalty goes away at age 59 ½. (There are a few exceptions. Substantially equal payment is one; disability is another.) There is no such penalty with a 457 plan, however. This is so important for public sector employees planning early retirement! You won’t be able to access Traditional IRAs and qualified plans at work before 59½ without the 10% penalty. So the strategy is to fund your 457 accounts with enough money to live on until you turn 59 ½ and the 10% penalty goes away.
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